First of it essential to remember that every individual has faced challenges and difficulties throughout their lives. However, people with disabilities are often exposed to more barriers that directly affect their lives. According to the World Health Organization, people with disabilities are subjected to more than physical challenges associated with disability.
Through the year, the general comprehension of disability has improved, and measures have been instituted to improve people's quality of life with a disability. People with disabilities have to develop different measures to overcome barriers that hinder their participation in society's activities. Barriers experienced by people with disabilities should be addressed to promote equal representation in society for all.
Types of Barriers facing People with Disabilities
Different countries have varying definitions of disability and methods of determining individuals living with a disability. When society shifts from viewing disability as an individual deficit but rather a social responsibility that calls for support to enable people to live independent and productive lives, it addresses barriers affecting people with disabilities.
According to the social and human rights perspectives, most of the barriers experienced by people with disabilities stem from the varying nature of barriers and not the impairment. The categories include environmental Barriers, attitudinal barriers, and institutional barriers.
Institutional barriers, also known as systematic barriers, refer to existing policies that unfairly discriminate and hinder people with disabilities in certain activities. Policy barriers often result due to unintentional errors of assumption or omission. Examples of systematic barriers are: Accepting only one medium of expression by the student on their comprehension of course content Denying certified people with disabilities the chance to benefit from federally funded initiatives and services Existence of poorly structured procedure when it comes to inclusive learning objectives for a course They deny people with disabilities access to opportunities or services due to their physical impairments Actions to break down barriers Review and develop new policies using a disability lens for accounting for potential barriers and making more inclusive programs Inclusion of individuals with disabilities in policy formulation initiative to ensure their interests are represented in future Adoption of Universal Design for Learning with improve the learning process and ensure it is flexible and objective
Attitudinal barriers stem from the way people perceive individuals with disabilities. It is no secret that people with disabilities are often subject to prejudice and discrimination from society. Society often treats them with fear, pity, and contempt and make elaborate decisions to avoid them. Most barriers in this category arise due to a lack of understanding and misconceptions with no factual basis about individuals with a disability. Examples of attitudinal barriers include: Stigma, discrimination, and prejudice - Are just manifestations of how society views individuals with a disability. More often than not, people tend to feel like something could have been done to prevent the condition or remedy the disability. It also occurs when people make individuals feel like you are offering them a "favor" by executing their obligations. Stereotyping- It is common practice for individuals within society to assume that people with disability is lacking. People assume individuals with disabilities are inferior, or people with speech impairment cannot comprehend you. The common assumption is that individuals with a disability are unintelligent and incapable of accomplishing any task. Stereotypes also stem from beliefs, for instance, and some people believe that disabilities are a punishment for breaking social norms. Actions to break down barriers Respect people with disabilities Abstain from assumptions concerning the abilities and capabilities of an individual with disabilities Encourage people with disabilities to express their views and opinions on the challenges they encounter in their lives Promotion of positive attitude towards individuals with disabilities Support initiatives that champion the rights of people with disabilities
People with disabilities refer to physical barriers present in our environment that hinder people with disabilities from active community participation. Physical barriers refer to access paths, building designs, and the layout of rooms. People with sensory disabilities may fall victim to communication barriers and experience a hard time expressing themselves. These barriers affect the reception and sending of information. Examples of Environmental barriers The absence of a weight scale that accommodates people with challenges standing up Steps that hinder people's movement are mobility impairment by denying them access to sidewalks and buildings Printed health promotion messages that hinder people with vision impairments from accessing the message The use of technical language or words with difficult syllables acts as a barrier to people with cognitive impairments Use of desks or counters that do not accommodate people on wheelchairs or mobility challenges Actions to break down Barrier Ensure that learning materials are electronically accessible to all learners They allow students to record lectures for easier learning and lectures to use podcasts and interactive medium to explain concepts Incorporating innovative and creative designs to make sure people with disabilities have access to facilities They create a conducive environment where people with disabilities are comfortable with customized resources to facilitate mobility and inclusion Use of technology to convey messages to people with sensory disabilities
Social barriers refer to conditions in which people are born, live, learn, work, and factors that determine their health affecting their functionality. Examples of Social Barriers may include: Children with disabilities are four times susceptible to experience violence compared to those without disabilities. 22.3% of individuals living with a disability are likely to live on an income less than $15000 compared to 7.3% of people without disability in the united states. The high school transition for people with disabilities is 10.1% compared to 22.3% of students without disabilities. According to research, people with disabilities are less likely to secure employment. In 2017 double the number of people without a disability were employed 35% of people with disabilities aged 18 to 64 years were employed. Barriers prevent equal representation by denying individuals with disabilities access to rights granted under the UN charter. It is essential to eliminate the barriers that hinder individuals with disabilities from engaging in development programs and other social activities.